The Lawn Institute is committed to integrity in education and science. All of the statements made on this website are supported by research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals such as those included below.

Bandaranayake, W., Y.L. Qian, W.J. Parton, D.S. Ojima, and R.F. Follett. 2003. Estimation of soil organic carbon changes in turfgrass systems using the CENTURY model. Agronomy Journal 95:558-563.

Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Beard, J.B., Green, R.L., 1994. The role of turfgrasses in environmental protection and their benefits to humans. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 452–460.

Braman, K. S. and R. F. Pendley. 1993. “Relative and Seasonal Abundance of Beneficial Arthropods in Centipede grass as Influenced by Management Practices.” Journal of Economic Entomology 86(2): 494- 504.

Braman, S. K., et al. 2000. “Management Strategy, Shade, and Landscape Composition Effects on Urban Landscape Plant Quality and Arthropod Abundance.” Journal of Economic Entomology 93(5): 1464-1472.

Brandenburg, R. L., Freeman, C.P., Ed. 2012. Handbook of Turfgrass Insects. Lanham, MD, Entomological Society of America.

Brown, W. and T. Schueler. 1997. National pollution removal performance database for stormwater BMP’s. Center for Watershed Protection, Silver Spring, MD. 208 pp.

Chang, B., N. Ojeda, B. Wherley, J. Aitkenhead-Peterson, C. Fontanier, and P. Dwyer. 2020. Effect of wetting agent on nutrient and water retention and runoff from simulated urban lawns. HortScience 55(7): 1005-1013.

Chen H et al. 2019. The soil microbial community of turf: linear and non-linear changes of taxa and N-cycling gene abundances over a century-long turf development. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 95, fiy224.

Cheng, Z., et al. 2008. “Ecology of urban lawns under three common management programs.” Urban Ecosystems 11(2): 177-195.

Cristano, P.E., J.L. Dardenelli, M.G. Cantarero, M. Maturano, R.J.M. Melchion, E.E. Suero. 2012. Influence of contrasting availabilities of water and nutrients on the radiation use efficiency C3 and C4 grasses. Austral. Ecol. 37, 323-329.

Crookston, M.A. 2015. Net infiltration from rainfall as measured with small weighing lysimeters.  2015 ASABE / IA Irrigation Symposium: Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Irrigation Conference Proceedings. (doi:10.13031/irrig.20152144226)

Dell et al. 2008. Intensive management affects composition of betaproteobacteiral ammonia oxidizers in turfgrass systems. Microbial Ecology 56, 178-190.

Dell et al. 2010. The community composition of soil denitrifying bacteria from a turfgrass chronosequence. Research in Microbiology 161, 315-525.

Erickson, J. E., J. L. Cisar, J. C. Volin, and G. H. Snyder. 2001. Comparing Nitrogen Runoff and Leaching between Newly Established St. Augustinegrass Turf and an Alternative Residential Landscape.Crop Sci. 41:1889–1895.

Evans, T. A., et al. 2011. “Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate.” Nature Communications 2: 262.

Fontanier, C., R. White, J. Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. Thomas, and B. Wherley. 2020. Effective rainfall estimates for St. Augustinegrass lawns under varying irrigation programs. In Press Agronomy Journal.

Gold, A.J., W.R. DeRagon, W.M. Sullivan, and J.L. Lemunyon. 1990. Nitrate-nitrogen losses to groundwater from rural and suburban land uses. J. Soil Water Cons. 45:305-310.

Gross, C.M., J.S. Angle, and M.S.Welterlen. 1990. Nutrient and sediment losses from turfgrass. J. Environ. Qual. 19:663–668.

Gross, C.M., J.S. Angle, R.L. Hill, and M.S. Welterlen. 1991. Runoff and sediment losses from tall fescue under simulated rainfall. J. Environ. Qual. 20:604–607.

Hamilton, G.W., and Waddington, D.V. (1999) Infiltration Rates on Residential Lawns in Central Pennsylvania. J. Soil Water Conserv., 54(3): 564.

Heng-Moss, T., et al. 1998. “Beneficial Arthropods Associated with Buffalograss.” Journal of Economic Entomology 91(5): 1167-1172.

Joseph, S. V. and S. K. Braman (2009). “Influence of Plant Parameters on Occurrence and Abundance of Arthropods in Residential Turfgrass.” Journal of Economic Entomology 102(3): 1116-1122.

Kinery, J.R., B.L. Burson, G.W. Evers, G.W. Williams, H. Sanchez, C. Wade, J.W. Featherston, J. Greenwade. 2007. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and native range simulation at diverse sites in Texas. Agron. J. 99, 450-461.

Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123:1-22.

Law, Q.D. and A.J. Patton. 2017. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in cool-season turfgrass systems. J. of Urban Forestry and Urban Greening.

Linde, D.T., T.L. Watschke, A.R. Jarrett, and J.A. Borger. 1995. Surface runoff assessment from creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass turf. Agron. J. 87:176–182.

Linde, D.T. and T. L. Watschke. 1997. Nutrients and sediments in runoff from creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass turf. J. Environ. Qual. 26:1248-1254.

Linde, D.T., T.L. Watschke, and A.R. Jarrett, 1999. Surface Runoff Comparison between Creeping Bentgrass and Perennial Ryegrass Turf. Journal of Turfgrass Management 2(4):11-34.

Loomis, R.S., D.J. Connor. 1992. Crop Ecology. Cambridge University Press, U.K.

Morton, T.G., A.J. Gold, and W.M. Sullivan. 1988. Influence of over watering and fertilization on nitrogen losses from home lawns.J. Environ. Qual. 17:124–130.

Norton, B. A., et al. 2014. “The effect of urban ground covers on arthropods: An experiment.” Urban Ecosystems 17(1): 77-99.

Penning de Vries, F.W.T. 1975. Use of assimilates in higher plants. In. J.P. Cooper (ed.), Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments. Cambridge University Press, UK.

Petrovic, A.M. 1990. The fate of nitrogenous fertilizers applied to turfgrass. J. Environ. Qual. 19:1–14.

Petrovic, A.M. & Easton, Z.M. 2005 The role of turfgrass management in the water quality of urban environments Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10 55 69.

Potter, D.A., B.L. Bridges, and F.C. Gordon. 1985. Effect of N fertilization on earthworm and microarthropod populations in Kentucky bluegrass turf.  Agron. J. 77:367-372.

Potter, D. A., A.J. Powell, and M.S. Smith. 1990. Degradation of turfgrass thatch by earthworms and other soil invertebrates. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:205-211.

Qian, Y. and R.F. Follett. 2002. Assessing soil carbon sequestration in turfgrass systems using long-term soil testing data. Agron. J. 94: 930-935.

Rochefort, S., et al. 2006. “Ground Beetle Assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Their Seasonal Abundance in Cool Season Turfgrass Lawns of Quebec.” Environmental Entomology 35(6): 1508-1514.

Schuyler, T. 1987. Controlling urban runoff:  A practical manual for planning and designing BMPs. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments.Washington, D.C.

Shi et al. 2006a. Soil microbial biomass, activity and nitrogen transformations in a turfgrass chronosequence Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 311-319

Shi et al. 2006b. Soil enzyme activities and organic matter composition in a turfgrass chronosequence. Plant and Soil 288, 285-296.

Shi et al. 2007. Soil microbial community composition and function in turfgrass ecosystems. Bioremediation, Biodiversity, and Bioavailability 1, 72-77.

Sinclair, T.R., T. Horie. 1989. Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and crop radiation use efficiency: A review. Crop Sci. 29, 90-98.

Watschke, T.L., and R.O. Mumma. 1989. Watschke EG, Mumma RO (1989) The effect of nutrients and pesticides applied to turf on the quality of runoff and percolating water. Environ. Resources Res. Inst. Report ER 8904. Pennsylvania State University, USA.

Watson, J.R., Jr. 1985. Water resources in the United States. p. 19-36. In V.A. Gibeault and S.T. Cockerham (ed.) Turfgrass water conservation. Div. of Agric. and Nat. Resources, Univ. of California, Riverside.

Xia et al. 2020. Soil Microbial diversity and composition: links to soil texture and associated properties. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 149, doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107953

Xia et al. 2019. Defoliation management and grass growth habits modulated the soil microbial community of turfgrass systems. PLoS ONE 14, e0218967

Xu, J., W. Chen, L. Wu, R. Green, and A.C. Chang. 2009. Leachability of some emerging contaminants in reclaimed municipal wastewater-irrigated turfgrass fields.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(9): 1842-1850.

Yao et al. 2006. Soil Microbial community structure and diversity in a turfgrass chronosequence: land-use change versus turfgrass management. Applied Soil Ecology 34, 209-218.

Zhang et al. 2017. Effect of turfgrass establishment on soil microbiota using illumine sequencing. Natural Environment and Pollution Technology 3, 679-686.

Zirkle, G.N., R. Lal., and B. Augustin. 2011. Modeling carbon sequestration in home lawns. HortScience 46(5): 808-814.

Zirkle, G.N., R. Lal., B. Augustin, and R. Follett. 2012. Modeling carbon sequestration in the U.S. residential landscape. P 265-276. In R. Lal and B. Augstin (eds.) Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems. Springer Press, New York.

Ziter, C. and M.G. Turner. 2018. Current and historical land use influence soil-based ecosystem services in an urban landscape. Ecological Applications Journal. 28(3): 643-654.

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